Decreasing Sex Ratio in the Country

EQUALITY INDIA NEWS / A SHAKTI VAHINI RESEARCH INITIATIVE

Details of sex-ratio in the Country and State-wise, as per Census 1981, 1991 and 2001 indicate that sex ratio has declined from 934 (as per 1981 census) to 927 ( as per 1991 census) and has increased to 933 (as per 2001 census).

(Sex Ratio : Number of Female per 1000 Males)

1981 1991 2001
India 934 927 933
Andhra Pradesh 975 972 978
Arunahchal  Pradesh 862 859 901
Assam 910 923 932
Bihar 948 907 921
Chattisgarh 996 985 990
Goa 975 967 960
Gujarat 942 934 921
Haryana 870 865 861
Himachal Pradesh 973 976 970
Jammu & Kashmir 892 896 900
Jharkhand 940 922 941
Karnataka 963 960 964
Kerala 1032 1036 1058
Madhya Pradesh 921 912 920
Maharashtra 937 934 922
Manipur 971 958 978
Meghalaya 954 955 975
Mizoram 919 921 938
Nagaland 863 886 909
Orissa 981 971 972
Punjab 879 882 874
Rajasthan 919 910 922
Sikkim 835 878 875
Tamil nadu 977 974 986
Tripura 946 945 950
Uttar Pradesh 882 876 898
Uttaranchal 936 936 964
West Bengal 911 917 934
Union Territories
1. Andaman & Nicobar Islands 760 818 846
2. Chandigarh 769 790 773
3. Dadra & Nagar Haveli 974 952 811
4. Daman & Diu 1062 969 709
5 Delhi 808 827 821
6 Lakshdweep 975 943 947
7 Pondicherry 985 979 1001

The reasons for high number of incidence of female foeticide  in India include  a deep rooted traditional son preference, continued practice of dowry and concern for safety of the girl child and exploitation and abuse of women and girl children.

In order to curb female foeticide and improve the sex ratio, Government has adopted  a multi-pronged strategy which includes legislative measures, advocacy, awareness generation and programmes for  socio-economic empowerment of women.

Under the Pre-Conception  and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technique (Prohibition of Sex Selection)  Act, 1994, sex selective abortions are made punishable. The Government in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is responsible for administration of this Act and its implementation is the responsibility of  the State Governments/ Union Territory Administrations. Further, foeticide is also punishable under Section 315 of Indian Penal Code (IPC), with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, or with fine, or with both.

Legislations such as Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 and the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 seek to penalise the perpetrators of  these social evils.

As a part of the measures taken to change the mind set of society, Government of India has been implementing on a pilot basis ‘Dhanalakshmi’, scheme for incentivising birth of the Girl Child. A number of States have been implementing their own schemes to incentivise the birth of a girl child and encourage families to place a premium on her education and development through Conditional Cash Transfer schemes.

Socio-economic empowerment of women is essential for making informed decisions and for change of the mind sets. The Government of India has undertaken a number of initiatives for this, such  as Support to Training and Employment Programme for Women (STEP), The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act(MGNREGA), National Rural Livelihood Mission(NRLM) and loans through the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh. This should go a long way in empowering women and enable them to take decisions about the birth of  children, their spacing, retain girl children and improve  the nutritional and educational status.

To create national awareness on issues relating to girl child, in 2009, Ministry of Women and Child Development has declared January 24 as the National Girl Child Day. On this day, besides the Central Government, the State Governments/ Union Territory Administrations undertake advocacy measures to improve the status of girl child in their respective States/ Union Territories.

This information was given by Smt. Krishna Tirath, Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Women and Child Development in a written reply to a question in the Rajya  Sabha today.

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